The female often has no choice whether or not to undergo the procedure. It explains the differences between the agendas of the Western feminist and African feminist. Doctor Toubia argues that physicians should not perform reinfibulation on women because it is physically harmful. This book also provided much information about the amount of women who are subjected to female genital mutilation. This article focuses on the women’s movement throughout the world.

Most importantly in this article, Doctor Toubia describes the physical complications associated with this practice. She won the right to stay in America in order to protect her daughters. However, the author argues that female genital mutilation is not rooted in religious doctrines, but in a desire to control women. If a woman refuses to have the operation performed, she is often ostercised from society. Education about the procedure is emerging.

Sourcebook on Violence against Women. The reader should also be able to understand the need for educating women of the world about their bodies, so that this process can be stopped. Links and Annotated Bibliographies.

annotated bibliography on fgm

The United States, did refuse to deport the woman but did not grant her political asylum. Women’s Low Status and Power. Further, it is noted that the practice of genital mutilation was used in the United States to treat female disorders. This article was helpful because it developed many areas of the process of female genital mutilation.

Female Genital Mutilation

Some of the justifications include “tradition, religion, the sexual control of women, and social acceptance. This article explores many of the aspects of female genital mutilation.


Their email address is caral aol. It also explains annottaed many complications that can arise from performing female circumcision on women and how it can have severe risks.

The focus of this article is the legal battle of an mother seeking to suspend her deportation to protect her two daughters from female genital mutilation. This book provided much information of where the people who are undergoing this procedure are coming from.

This explanation begins with a look at legislation that was proposed in the United States to have the practice be regarded as child abuse.

Female Genital Mutilation

Lenihan, A Physician’s Dilemma: The author notes that the size of the opening left after infibulation is that of a kernel of corn. Walker, Alice, and Pratibha Parmar. Violence Against WomenWorld Watch, vol.

annotated bibliography on fgm

This article also examines the Western response to this practice. This article gives an in depth examination of the violence against women that occurs around the world, but particularly in areas that practice female genital mutilation. She was being forced to marry, and was scheduled to be mutilated prior to the marriage.

To combat the hygiene justification, the author gives real life examples of women who have had sometimes deadly results from infibulation. It also examined why this practice is occurring and gave reasons for it.

Build your website in minutes. Reproductive Freedom [and Rights. The article examines the tensions of the West and countries that practice female genital mutilation, noting that many believe the West does not understand the culture behind this practice.


The author notes the potential shortcomings of the memorandum such as the lack of commitment to protection of annotqted displayed by the memo.

They portray how these cultures maintain traditions which present females as being dirty or unsightly when they are not circumcised. The article concludes with a determination that the United States government must take action to protect women who are threatened with genital mutilation. Bibllography explain that there is usually a set person bibbliography to perform all of fym circumcisions who also acts as a midwife during the births in the community. The author teamed up with a prestige documentary creator to create a documentary to show people exactly what female genital mutilation is and how it affects many women.

They provide many explanations for why this practice occurs throughout many of these countries which include sexual, sociological, hygiene, health, and religious reasons. Women’s Work Mexico’s Maquiladoras: A harmless cultural tradition or a harmful means of control Annotated Bibliography Deanna M. The practice of clitoridectomy was used to “cure” a variety of female disorders, such hibliography lesbianism and excessive masturbation.

The article describes two different immigration hearings where women were seeking to not be deported in order to protect their daughters from female circumcision.