It would therefore help us in our understanding towards our own project immensely if we could get in touch with you as soon as possible. It is left to Laksmana, who goes to hell while Rama finds release kaivalya. Though many incidents look the same as they do in Valmiki, many things look different as well. It occurs in one tradition of the Jain stories for example, in the Vasudevahimdi and in folk traditions of Kannada and Telugu, as well as in several Southeast Asian Ramayanas. Every one of these occurs in more than one text, in more than one textual community Hindu, Jain or Buddhist , in more than one region. The count of Ramayanas in the title of the essay is based on a work of Camille Bulcke [1] and it has been pointed out that it is an underestimate of the actual count. Thus obviously transplantations take place through several routes.

Every author, if one may hazard a metaphor, dips into it and brings out a unique crystallization, a new text with a unique texture and a fresh context. She asked him what exactly was happening and didn’t let up till he finally told her how he had been sleeping through the performance every night. When he still resists the idea, she is furious. One hardly need add that the Paumacariya is filled with references to Jain places of pilgrimage, stories about Jain monks, and Jain homilies and legends. If we argue that these were lost due to the vicissitudes of time, then it is not absurd to argue that those evidences that proved the exact opposite of this argument were also lost due to the vicissitudes of time. His words provide a clue as to what the issue is really about.

When it touched the earth, it made a hole in the ground and disappeared into it. Ramanujan himself laid great stress on the fact that Indians interpret everything contextually and have no use for universal principles or indeed intensional language.

The king looked around and showed him a platter. One ends with the return of Rama and Sita to Ayodhya, their capital, to be crowned king and queen of the ideal kingdom.


Ramanujan’s Three Hundred Ramayanas: Transmission, Interpretation And Dialogue In Indian Traditions

And ramaunjans are stories that answer the question. Difference the plural, if we continue with the Irish trouser does not necessarily mean rupture or devaluation, but even if it does, it would be more fruitful to read the contexts in which these were produced rather than debunk the other traditions.

It takes the power of Siva to reunite them. This incarnation of Rama is now over. Maybe this episode isn’t over yet?

This valuable essay is being made available here at sacw. Kampan, writing in the twelfth century, composed his poem under the influence of Tamil bhakti. She saw his face reflected in them ninefold and so called him Dasamukha, or the Ten-faced One.

The question of folk traditions of the Ramayana are more difficult to address because we move into a different realm, from 030 written text to orality.

Ramayana: An ‘epic’ controversy – BBC News

However, mine is an academic disagreement, which I would like to place within academic parameters. However, armanujans was indisputably upheld was the fact that all Indian traditions traced their Ramayana retelling, studies, interpretations, and scholarship to Valmiki, and not to any other source. Thus Laksmana slays Ravana with his own cherished weapon.

ak ramanujans essay 300 ramayanas

This essay opened with a folktale about the many Ramayanas. Indra tries to steal away in the shape of a cat, clearly a folklore ramaunjans also found, for example, in the Kathasaritsagara, an eleventh-century Sanskrit compendium of folktales; see Tawney So, in a fit of helpless anger, she calls upon Mother Earth to take her.

The compassionate Laksmana leaves her alive in the forest, though, and brings back the heart of a deer as witness to the execution.

Drawn irresistibly by this immortal epic, they have in their own ways, for their own happiness or profit retold it, and in many cases, have enriched it in their own unique way. It was an all-night performance, and he just couldn’ t keep awake. Text of statement by academics and concerned citizens against the assault on Prof Sanjay Kumar, in Motihari Champaran, Bihar.


The tradition itself distinguishes between the Rama story ramakatha and texts composed by a specific person—Valmiki, Kampan, or Krttivasa, for example. Every author, if one may hazard a metaphor, dips into it and brings out a unique crystallization, a new text with a unique texture and a fresh context.

Let rajayanas outline a few of the differences we have not yet encountered.

ak ramanujans essay 300 ramayanas

After a ritual puja and prayers to Siva, Ravula is ready to share the esssay. So Ravana or Ravula goes to the forest, performs all sorts of self-mortifications like rolling on the ground till blood runs from his back, and meets a jogi, or holy mendicant, who is none other than Siva.

Three Hundred Ramayanas: Five Examples and Three Thoughts on Translation

He sees a hunter aim an arrow and kill one of a happy pair of love-birds. So, in damanujans to adapt ramsnujans tale about horse to their conditions it may have to be retold as a bull, which was known to them. The word translation itself here acquires a somewhat mathematical sense, of mapping a structure of relations onto another plane or another symbolic system. She rushes to see him but flies into a rage when she finds she has been tricked.

ak ramanujans essay 300 ramayanas

They wrote back an abject letter in which they actually thanked them! Wrong-thinking poetasters and fools tell these lies. This part also describes the banishment of Sita, the birth of her sons, their war with Rama, Sita’s descent into the earth, and the appearance of the gods to gamayanas Rama and Sita. Every one of these occurs in more than one text, in more than one textual community Hindu, Jain or Buddhistin more than one region.