These responses occurred across all age levels. See all free Kindle reading apps. Pupils, in undertaking homework, inevitably give up other possible activities and this can cause conflict Black Teachers can only encourage students to be self-aware of the environmental and self-states which most support their learning and to attempt to ensure that that they are optimal when homework is being completed. There was an increase in time spent on homework from early primary to upper secondary school but within this there was considerable variation from school to school, class to class, and teacher to teacher.

Taken together with the evidence from the UK, these studies indicate the powerful impact of different cultures on gendered approaches to homework. The final chapter considers the future of homework, including interventions to support pupils, and proposes a model providing a framework for thinking about homework. Not understanding what was expected of them also generated negative attitudes Ofsted Be the first to review this item Amazon Bestsellers Rank: Some said that they found it boring or difficult to understand.

Harris and Rudduck reported that students did not like doing homework which they perceived did not contribute to or consolidate their learning.

Homework: The evidence (Bedford Way Papers): : Susan Hallam: Books

Since the mid-nineteenth century it has been used to supplement the school curriculum, moving in and out of fashion according to the political climate. To date, research on approaches to homework has not proved eusan in illuminating how the processes involved in completing homework and the adoption of different strategies might impact on attainment.

homework the evidence by susan hallam

At bu level, when asked what was the best thing about homework, most pupils specified a particular subject. Pupils do not enjoy doing homework, but they believe that it is important in helping them do well at school. Pupils who like school are more likely to believe in the importance of homework than those who dislike school LaPointe et al ; Keys et al ; Leung The role of homework in attainment; 3.

But one study of pupils in the USA at secondary level, which took the pupils’ perspective, suggested that pupils did not necessarily support this idea evvidence being given assignments which were different from the rest of the class tended to have a negative impact on self-esteem Nelson et al She then describes the findings of studies that compare homework with no homework or with supervised homework, and international and UK studies looking at the relationships between time spent on homework and attainment.


A key finding from this research was that, with age, students became better able to identify when music was distracting them from their work and were more inclined to take steps to remove the music.

Homework: The Evidence – Susan Hallam, Lynne Rogers – Google Books

Those children with significantly higher values for cultural capital, with more educationally evivence and supportive home backgrounds tended to do more homework. Some also said that it could be interesting or fun MacBeath and Turner For boys, there was a strong distinction between school and work; girls were more ready to do school work at home and to discuss work with their peers. Hong and Milgram suggest that pupils cannot always work in the way they prefer because of physical or parental constraints.

Teachers and homework; 5. Some pupils in English and Welsh secondary schools have reported, however, that they had insufficient books at home to support their learning Johnson Other factors mentioned included borrowing books from the library, having shorter exercises, when susah did not only involve writing, and if friends could do it together MacBeath and Turner Middle and low achievers all benefited from cooperative work, whereas high achievers did not, although they still maintained their top position in mathematics.

homework the evidence by susan hallam

Gender differences A number of studies have commented on gender differences in evidennce to homework. Given that other activities may be equally beneficial to students’ cognitive and emotional development, schools need to be confident that the homework they are setting is of real value in increasing attainment. There are also cultural differences.

homework the evidence by susan hallam

However, Cooper et al found a significant negative association between time spent watching TV, and test scores in mathematics and English. Where teachers fail to mark homework and provide appropriate formative feedback to students about how their work might be improved pupils perceive limited benefit in sysan it.

TV can also act to occupy someone else who might be distracting Wober Pupils often report that homework has little relationship to the work in hand, it is poorly set, marked late, and that there is a lack of pupil-teacher interaction resulting in poor feedback Le Metais ; Heller et al ; Rosenberg ; Ulrich ; Bechler ; Hodapp and Hodapp Homework was perceived as easier if it was better explained, if there was less of it, if it was more interesting, if there was more time to do it, and if there was someone to help.


This response was the highest in the first two years of secondary school. In Scotland MacBeath and Turner found that in a typical evening primary pupils and their parents agreed that they had homework that took less than an hour. Girls were more ready to plan their time and cope with their responsibility in an orderly fashion Harris, Nixon and Rudduck and were more likely than the boys to report reading for pleasure outside school Keys et al MacBeath and Turner established that pupils adopt different patterns of doing homework.

Share your thoughts with other customers. The evidence synthesizes key findings from the international research, providing an evidence-base that can be used in future considerations of the role of homework in the lives of children and young people.

Follow the Author

Pupils resented work set above or below their ability, criticised teachers who catered for the lowest common denominator and felt that good teachers individualised homework. While the advice usually given in relation to studying is to work in a quiet place where disturbance will be minimal, this advice is rarely taken and the evidence suggests that for some pupils it may be not only impossible but inappropriate. Teams of two, four or five were less successful.