Preparation homework is assigned to introduce students to material the teacher will present in the future. Results from a rigorous three-year study of the 21st Century Community Learning Centers program, which mandates programs to provide out-of-school-time enrichment, remediation, and homework assistance in reading, math, and other subjects, did not find any connection between providing structured time for homework completion and academic performance James-Burdumy, Dynarski, Moore, Deke, Mansfield, Pistorino, and Warner Researchers often attribute such a discrepancy to the fact that younger students typically have shorter attention spans than older students. Although the overall effects of homework on student achievement are inconclusive, studies involving students at different grade levels suggest that homework may be more effective for older students than for younger ones. This relationship held true across elementary, middle, and high school grade levels. The forgotten voices in homework:
Much research has been conducted to try to understand the ways in which various types of homework and various situations influence different groups of students. Lower-achieving students may take more time than higher-achieving students to finish assignments. Does homework help or hinder student learning—and which students, under what conditions, does it help or hinder? Overall, these researchers noted, “After-school programs can serve a protective function for children, particularly for those who do not have access to other structured after-school activities or homework assistance at home” Cosden et al. They concluded that homework completed outside of the school day had a greater impact on grades and achievement test scores than homework completed in study hall or elsewhere during the school day. Interestingly, student achievement was lower in countries where homework counted toward grades, where it was the basis of classroom discussion, and where students corrected homework in class.
From the end of the nineteenth century through the s, the child health and progressive education movements led to an attack on homework for elementary school and junior high school students.
In fact, studies that have included longitudinal data or other checks and balances in the research design have found that homework has a negative effect on achievement Cooper et al. Several researchers contend that low-performing students spend more time on homework than high-performing students do De Jong, Westerhof, and Creemers ; Epstein and Van Voorhis Kralovec and Buell attribute the lack of coutst evidence to the diversity of research questions and designs used in homework hojework.
What research says about the value of homework: Research review
Best practices that support diverse needs. In Chen and Stevenson’s cross-cultural examination of homework in grades one, three, and five, the researchers argue that homework can have a negative impact on students’ attitudes toward school. As reported in one study, students in predominantly minority schools do less homework 20004 those in predominantly white schools.
Little research exists on the impact of homework completed by a student working with one or more other people. Cooper homwork noted a trend in these results: Homework increases academic achievement.
Project MUSE – Meanings of Homework and Implications for Practice
Results from her study indicated that students who were assigned homework scored higher on vocabulary tests than those who were not. These findings suggest that the low correlation between homework and achievement at the elementary level may be due to the intended purpose and type of the homework and the reaction of specific students, rather than the homework itself.
If you would like to authenticate using a different subscribed institution that supports Shibboleth authentication or have homewogk own login and password to Project MUSE. Consider parents and guardians to be your allies when it comes to homework. The new backlash against homework could be viewed as part of the natural cycle, or as a fresh perspective on how these strict accountability requirements affect students.
The s saw a decline in the progressive education movement, coupled with a renewed interest in homework. Van Voorhis examined the association between homework and science achievement in middle school grades. With so many factors influencing homework’s efficacy in learning, staying informed of the research and making the best decisions possible with available data may be the greatest steps policymakers can take to help ensure student learning in their districts.
What is the Purpose of Homework?
Kralovec and Buell attribute the lack of conclusive evidence to the diversity of research questions and designs used in homework research. A quasi-experimental study by Van Voorhis looked at science homework involving interaction between parent and student to measure its impact on family involvement and academic achievement.
Cooper a noted a trend in these results: By examining taped sessions and interviews with parents and students, they discovered that homework helped third graders learn responsibility and develop time-management and job-management skills. According to Cooper ateachers can provide four types of feedback:. Interestingly, the amount of homework assigned by teachers was typically unrelated to student achievement; yet, as in his earlier findings, student reports of the amount of homework completed were positively associated with student achievement.
Specifically, traditional, daily, and graded homework had the greatest positive impact on student achievement in the fourth and fifth grades.
They concluded that homework completed outside of the school day had a homeworkk impact on grades and achievement test scores than homework completed in study hall or elsewhere during the school day. Abstract Many of the discussions in both the popular and academic press assume that the key participants and stakeholders have the same understandings about homework and its meanings.
Teacher feedback The teacher’s response to homework assignments is occasionally reported as a factor influencing the impact of homework on achievement or other outcomes. Couttts from this rigorous study revealed that high levels of family involvement were not significantly associated with high levels of academic achievement.
And Cooper, Robinson, and Patall note that educators claim “a long list of both positive and negative consequences of homework” 6suggesting a need for continued examination of the subject. By contrast, in a study conducted by De Jong, Westerhof, and Creemersthe researchers contend that “teachers giving less homework are less effective” According to Keith’s proposed path analysis, homework has a causal effect on high school achievement.
Supposed disadvantages include loss of interest in school due to burnout, lack of leisure time, interference by parents, cheating, and disparity between performance levels of students.
What is the Purpose of Homework? – McREL International
By contrast, in coktts study conducted by De Jong, Westerhof, and Creemersthe researchers contend that “teachers giving less homework are less effective” This study employed structural equation modeling, a statistical technique for building and testing models of interacting among factors and outcomes. Over the past years, the public’s support for homework has waxed and waned on a fairly regular cycle. Experimental studies, on the other homwwork, are designed to show causality.